Energy is evolved when the ions come together to produce the crystal lattice (lattice energy or enthalpy). (a) describe the redox reactions of the Group 2 elements Mg to Ba: (i) with oxygen, (ii) with water; (b) explain the trend in reactivity of Group 2 elements down the group due to the increasing ease of forming cations, in terms of atomic size, shielding and nuclear attraction; Reactions of Group 2 compounds As a whole, metals when burns with the oxygen form a simple metal oxide. This is then well on the way to forming a simple oxide ion if the right-hand oxygen atom (as drawn below) breaks off. Reaction with water Most Group II oxides react with water to produce the hydroxide e.g. If this is the first set of questions you have done, please read the introductory page before you start. The lattice energy is greatest if the ions are small and highly charged - the ions will be close together with very strong attractions. It explains why it is difficult to observe many tidy patterns. It explains why it is difficult to observe many tidy patterns. All group 2 elements except barium react directly with oxygen to form the simple oxide MO. Ca(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) The has been reduced from 0 to -2. This is because the less electronegative sodium has a weak Na-O bond and the oxygen is more easily given up to react with H+. The size of the lattice energy depends on the attractions between the ions. This is mainly due to a decrease in ionization energy down the group. This is clearly seen if we observe the reactions of magnesium and calcium in water. Energy is evolved when the ions come together to produce the crystal lattice. Magnesium, on the other hand, has to be heated to quite a high temperature before it will start to react. Ions of the metals at the top of the Group have such a high charge density (because they are so small) that any peroxide ion near them falls to pieces to give an oxide and oxygen. Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid All the metals react with dilute hydrochloric acid to give bubbles of hydrogen and a colourless solution of the metal chloride. CaO(s) + H2O(l) ——> Ca(OH)2(s) Hydroxides • basic strength also increases down group • this is because the solubility increases • the metal ions get larger so charge density decreases • there is a lower attraction between the OH¯ ions and larger dipositive ions Looks at the trends in the reactions between the Group 2 elements and water. 2Mg + O2 2MgO This needs to be cleaned off by emery paper before doing reactions with Mg ribbon. The reactions of the Group 2 metals with air rather than oxygen is complicated by the fact that they all react with nitrogen to produce nitrides. Magnesium, of course, burns with a typical intense white flame. Beryllium, magnesium and calcium don't form peroxides when heated in oxygen, but strontium and barium do. A reducing agent is the compound that gets oxidised in the reaction and, therefore, loses electrons. Once started, the reactions with Oxygen and Chlorine are vigorous: 2Mg(s) + O 2 (g) è2MgO(s) Ca(s) + Cl 2 (g) è CaCl 2 (s) All the metals except Beryllium form oxides in air at room temperature which dulls the surface of the metal. Beryllium is reluctant to burn unless it is in the form of dust or powder. The activation energy is much higher. 2M(s) + O The alkali metals react with oxygen. Mixtures of barium oxide and barium peroxide will be produced. Beryllium is reluctant to burn unless in the form of powder or dust. Lithium is the only metal in Group 1 to form a nitride. "X" in the equation can represent any of the metals in the Group. When the crystal lattices form, so much energy is released that it more than compensates for the energy needed to produce the various ions in the first place. It cannot be said that by moving down the group these metals burn more vigorously. Anhydrous calcium chloride is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a desiccant. Barium peroxide can form because the barium ion is so large that it doesn't have such a devastating effect on the peroxide ions as the metals further up the Group. To find the trend of reactions of metals with oxygen is almost impossible. Missed the LibreFest? For example, Barium peroxide can form because the barium ion is so large that it doesn't have such a devastating effect on the peroxide ions as the metals further up the Group. Barium: I have also only seen this burn on video, and although the accompanying description talked about a pale green flame, the flame appeared to be white with some pale green tinges. It is easier for group 2 elements to lose 2 electrons the further away the electrons are from the nucleus ( as you go down there are more shells), hence the trend is as you go down the group 2 elements the reactivity with oxygen increases. Beryllium is reluctant to burn unless it is in the form of dust or powder. We say that the positive ion polarises the negative ion. This page looks at the reactions of the Group 2 elements - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium - with air or oxygen. In all the other Group 1 elements, the overall reaction would be endothermic. Reactions with oxygen … It explains why it is difficult to observe many tidy patterns. For example, the familiar white ash you get when you burn magnesium ribbon in air is a mixture of magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride. Mixtures of barium oxide and barium peroxide will be produced. oxygen, to forma metal oxide with the formula MO where M is the metal and O is oxygen ... (OH)2 is only sparingly soluble. It is almost impossible to find any trend in the way the metals react with oxygen. This is then well on the way to forming a simple oxide ion if the right-hand oxygen atom (as drawn below) breaks off. You will notice that the trend in the pH of the solutions formed goes from alkaline to acidic. Mg ribbon will often have a thin layer of magnesium oxide on it formed by reaction with oxygen. The strontium equation would look just the same. On the whole, the metals burn in oxygen to form a simple metal oxide. REACTIONS OF THE GROUP 2 ELEMENTS WITH AIR OR OXYGEN This page looks at the reactions of the Group 2 elements - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium - with air or oxygen. The reaction of Group II Elements with Oxygen. On the whole, the metals burn in oxygen to form a simple metal oxide. Why do these metals form nitrides on heating in air? You could argue that the activation energy will fall as you go down the Group and that will make the reaction go faster. All Group 2 elements tarnish in air to form a coating of the metal oxide. $2Mg_{(s)} + O_{2(g)} \rightarrow 2MgO_{(s)}$, $3Mg_{(s)} + N_{2(g)} \rightarrow Mg_3N_{2(s)}$. Reaction of Group-2 Metals with Cl 2 : All Gr-2 metals except Be react with chlorine to give ionic chlorides whereas Be reacts with chlorine to give covalent chloride . A/AS level. . The Facts. information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. On the whole, the metals burn in oxygen to form a simple metal oxide. Mg ribbon will often have a thin layer of magnesium oxide on it formed by reaction with oxygen. 2.11 Group II elements and their compounds. This property is known as deliquescence. Why do some metals form peroxides on heating in oxygen? The excess energy evolved makes the overall process exothermic. Nitrogen is fairly unreactive because of the very large amount of energy is required to break the triple bond joining the two atoms in the nitrogen molecule, N2. Their ions only carry one positive charge, and so the lattice energies of their nitrides will be much less. As I said earlier, they are powerful reducing age… REACTIONS OF THE GROUP 2 ELEMENTS WITH AIR OR OXYGEN. You haven't had to heat them by the same amount to get the reactions happening. Their ions only carry one positive charge, and so the lattice energies of their nitrides will be much less. This energy is known as lattice energy or lattice enthalpy. The peroxide ion, O22- looks like this: The covalent bond between the two oxygen atoms is relatively weak. It would be quite untrue to say that they burn more vigorously as you go down the Group. Ions of the metals at the top of the Group have such a high charge density (because they are so small) that any peroxide ion near them falls to pieces to give an oxide and oxygen. Barium forms barium peroxide (BaO 2) because the larger O 2 2− ion is better able to separate the large Ba 2+ ions in the crystal lattice. The Facts The reactions with oxygen Formation of simple oxides Group 2 have 2 outer electrons which are less easily lost compared to group 1 At the top of group 2 ionisation energies are often too high for the electrons to be removed so they're relatively unreactive, reactivity increases down group 2 also. 2:07 understand how displacement reactions involving halogens and halides provide evidence for the trend in reactivity in Group 7; 2:08 (Triple only) explain the trend in reactivity in Group 7 in terms of electronic configurations (c) Gases in the atmosphere. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Now imagine bringing a small 2+ ion close to the peroxide ion. Reactions with water . The strontium equation would look just the same. It would be quite untrue to say that they burn more vigorously as you go down the Group. Have questions or comments? MgO + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H 2O Reactions with oxygen. In each case, you will get a mixture of the metal oxide and the metal nitride. (b) Relative Reactivities of the Group 2 elements Mg → Ba shown by their redox reactions with: (i) Oxygen (ii) Water (iii) Dilute acids {Reactions with acids will be limited to those producing a salt and Hydrogen.} . All of these processes absorb energy. Formation of simple oxides. The group 2 metals (M (s)) react with oxygen gas (O 2(g)) at room temperature and pressure to form oxides with the general formula MO as shown in the balanced chemical reactions below: 2Be (s) O 2(g) Question: (a) Write Chemical Equations For The Reactions Of Oxygen With Group 1 Metals And Group 2 Metals Respectiv (4 Marks) (b) Discuss The Trend Of Thermal Stability Of Group 1 And Group 2 Peroxides. Those reactions don't happen, and the nitrides of sodium and the rest aren't formed. CCEA Chemistry. Mg + 2 H2O Mg(OH) 2 + H2 This is a much slower reaction than the reaction with steam and there is no flame. This page looks at the reactions of the Group 2 elements - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium - with air or oxygen. In the whole of Group 2, the attractions between the 2+ metal ions and the 3- nitride ions are big enough to produce very high lattice energies. Those reactions don't happen, and the nitrides of sodium and the rest are not formed. 1.3.2 (a) Redox Reactions of Group 2 Metals. As group 2 in the periodic table comprises of metals, the reactivity of group 2 elements towards chlorine increases when working our way down the group 2 metals. You could argue that the activation energy will fall as you go down the Group and that will make the reaction go faster. increases down the group because it becomes more easy to lose the two electrons. This is in contrast to what happens in Group 1 of the Periodic Table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium). Atomic and physical properties . REACTIONS OF THE GROUP 2 ELEMENTS WITH COMMON ACIDS This page looks at the reactions of the Group 2 elements - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium - with common acids. My best guess would be the same sort of silvery sparkles that magnesium or aluminium powder burn with if they are scattered into a flame - but I don't know that for sure. e.g. Exposed to air, it will absorb water vapour from the air, forming a solution. Further along though, a strong S-O bond keeps this together and more H+ is generated. This Module addressed why it is difficult to observe a tidy pattern of this reactivity. to generate metal oxides. An example reaction is shown below: In this reaction, the is oxidised from 0 to +2. What the metals look like when they burn is a bit problematical! The activation energy will fall because the ionization energies of the metals fall. Strontium: I have only seen this burn on video. This works best if the positive ion is small and highly charged - if it has a high charge density. It would be tempting to say that the reactions get more vigorous as you go down the Group, but it isn't true. When these metals (M) are heated in oxygen they burn vigorously to produce a white ionic oxide, M2+O2-. The general formula for this reaction is MO (where M is the group 2 element). Lithium has by far the smallest ion in the Group, and so lithium nitride has the largest lattice energy of any possible Group 1 nitride. Discusses trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy, electronegativity and melting point of the Group 2 elements. PERIODIC TABLE GROUP 2 MENU . Only in lithium's case is enough energy released to compensate for the energy needed to ionise the metal and the nitrogen - and so produce an exothermic reaction overall. 2Mg + O 2MgO Mg will also react with warm water, giving a different magnesium hydroxide product. This works best if the positive ion is small and highly charged - if it has a high charge density. It is almost impossible to find any trend in the way the metals react with oxygen. When something like magnesium nitride forms, you have to supply all the energy needed to form the magnesium ions as well as breaking the nitrogen-nitrogen bonds and then forming N3- ions. This is in contrast to what happens in Group 1 of the Periodic Table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium). strontium and water reaction. The equations for the reactions: Only in lithium's case is enough energy released to compensate for the energy needed to ionize the metal and the nitrogen - and so produce an exothermic reaction overall. It reacts with cold water to produce an alkaline solution of calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is released. Electrons in the peroxide ion will be strongly attracted towards the positive ion. Describe the trend in the reactivity of group 2 elements with chlorine as you descend down the group. $2X_{(s)} + O_{2(g)} \rightarrow 2XO_{(s)}$. Strontium forms this if it is heated in oxygen under high pressures, but barium forms barium peroxide just on normal heating in oxygen. All group 2 elements want to lose 2 electrons and all group 6 elements (oxygen) want to gain 2 electrons. This is compared to non-metals when the reactivity decreases working down a non-metal group such as group 7. Electrons in the peroxide ion will be strongly attracted towards the positive ion. 2.11.3 investigate and describe the reactions of the elements with oxygen, water and dilute acids; Reactions with oxygen. This leads to lower activation energies, and therefore faster reactions. The speed is controlled by factors like the presence of surface coatings on the metal and the size of the activation energy. The activation energy will fall because the ionisation energies of the metals fall. In this case, though, the effect of the fall in the activation energy is masked by other factors - for example, the presence of existing oxide layers on the metals, and the impossibility of controlling precisely how much heat you are supplying to the metal in order to get it to start burning. There are also problems with surface coatings. Anything else that I could find in a short clip from YouTube involved a flame test for a barium compound, irrespective of how it was described in the video. . But how reactive a metal seems to be depends on how fast the reaction happens (i.e., Kinetics) - not the overall amount of heat evolved (i.e., Thermodynamics). Group 2 reactions Reactivity of group 2 metals increases down the group Mg will also react slowly with oxygen without a flame. However, in a reaction with steam it forms magnesium oxide and hydrogen. A high charge density simply means that you have a lot of charge packed into a small volume. This forms a white oxide, which covers the surface. This energy has to be recovered from somewhere to give an overall exothermic reaction - if the energy can't be recovered, the overall change will be endothermic and won't happen. It can't be done! This energy has to be recovered from somewhere to give an overall exothermic reaction - if the energy can't be recovered, the overall change will be endothermic and will not happen. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Nitrogen is often thought of as being fairly unreactive, and yet all these metals combine with it to produce nitrides, X3N2, containing X2+ and N3- ions. It is also reluctant to start burning, but then burns with an intense almost white flame with red tinges especially around the outside. Lithium has by far the smallest ion in the Group, and so lithium nitride has the largest lattice energy of any possible Group 1 nitride. Reactivity increases down the group. You will need to use the BACK BUTTON on your browser to come back here afterwards. As you go down the Group and the positive ions get bigger, they don't have so much effect on the peroxide ion. The overall amount of heat evolved when one mole of oxide is produced from the metal and oxygen shows no simple pattern: If anything, there is a slight tendency for the amount of heat evolved to get less as you go down the Group. The reactions of the alkaline earth metals with oxygen are less complex than those of the alkali metals. 2Mg + O2 2MgO This needs to be cleaned off by emery paper before doing reactions with Mg ribbon. There is an increase in the tendency to form the peroxide as you go down the Group. The reactions of the Group 2 metals with air rather than oxygen is complicated by the fact that they all react with nitrogen to produce nitrides. in the air. But how reactive a metal seems to be depends on how fast the reaction happens - not the overall amount of heat evolved. In all the other cases in Group 1, the overall reaction would be endothermic. There are no simple patterns in the way the metals burn. 2Li(s) + Cl 2 (g) → 2LiCl(s) A similar reaction takes place with the other elements of group 7. The chemical properties of Group2 elements are dominated by the strong reducing power of the metals. To be able to make any sensible comparison, you would have to have pieces of metal which were all equally free of oxide coating, with exactly the same surface area and shape, exactly the same flow of oxygen around them, and heated to exactly the same extent to get them started. The speed is controlled by factors like the presence of surface coatings on the metal and the size of the activation energy. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. In each case, you will get a mixture of the metal oxide and the metal nitride. The general trend in acidity in oxides of the Period 3 elements as we go across the period from left (Group 1) to right (Group 17): basic oxides (Group 1, 2) → amphoteric oxide (Al 2 O 3) → acidic oxides (oxyacids) The same trend can be seen in each period of the Periodic table and we have: Bases react with acids such is HCl: The reactions with oxygen. To be able to make any sensible comparison, you would have to have pieces of metal which were all equally free of oxide coating, with exactly the same surface area and shape, exactly the same flow of oxygen around them, and heated to exactly the same extent to get them started. Representative reactions of alkaline earth metals. Why do some metals form peroxides on heating in oxygen? Strontium and barium will also react with oxygen to form strontium or barium peroxide. Ca + Cl 2 → CaCl 2. The group 2 elements react vigorously with oxygen in a redox reaction, forming an oxide with the general formula where is the group 2 element. Reaction with halogens. reactivity trend down group 2 with water. The excess energy evolved makes the overall process exothermic. It is then so hot that it produces the typical intense white flame. Beryllium: I can't find a reference anywhere (text books or internet) to the colour of the flame that beryllium burns with. Group 2 reactions Reactivity of group 2 metals increases down the group Mg will also react slowly with oxygen without a flame. In the whole of Group 2, the attractions between the 2+ metal ions and the 3- nitride ions are big enough to produce very high lattice energies. The reactions of the Group 2 metals with air rather than oxygen is complicated by the fact that they all react with nitrogen to produce nitrides. Strontium and barium will also react with oxygen to form strontium or barium peroxide. 2:09 know the approximate percentages by volume of the four most abundant gases in dry air As you go down the Group and the positive ions get bigger, they don't have so much effect on the peroxide ion. You might possibly be able to imagine a trace of very pale greenish colour surrounding the white flame in the third video, but to my eye, they all count as a white flame. questions on the reactions of Group 2 elements with air or oxygen, © Jim Clark 2002 (last modified February 2015), reactions of these metals with water (or steam). Reactions. Strontium forms this if it is heated in oxygen under high pressures, but barium forms barium peroxide just on normal heating in oxygen. . Mg burns with a bright white flame. What the metals look like when they burn is a bit problematical! They react violently in pure oxygen producing a white ionic oxide. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The general equation for the Group is: $3X_{(s)} + N_{2(g)} \rightarrow X_3N_{2(s)}$. Lithium is the only metal in Group 1 to form a nitride. The Reactions with Air. with $$X$$ representing any group 2 metal. The familiar white ash you get when you burn magnesium ribbon in air is a mixture of magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride (despite what you might have been told when you were first learning Chemistry!). The Group II elements are powerful reducing agents. The group 2 metals will burn in oxygen. Beryllium, magnesium and calcium don't form peroxides when heated in oxygen, but strontium and barium do. Beryllium has a very strong (but very thin) layer of beryllium oxide on its surface, and this prevents any new oxygen getting at the underlying beryllium to react with it. All of these processes absorb energy. (h) trend in general reactivity of Group 1 and Group 2 metals; Northern Ireland. Oxygen: All of the elements in group 2 react vigorously with Oxygen, the product of which is an ionic oxide. The lattice energy is greatest if the ions are small and highly charged - the ions will be close together with very strong attractions. $Ba_{(s)} + O_{2(s)} \rightarrow BaO_{2(s)}$. Reactions of Group 2 Elements with Oxygen, [ "article:topic", "Oxygen", "authorname:clarkj", "barium", "Magnesium", "strontium", "calcium", "Beryllium", "showtoc:no", "Air", "simple oxides", "metal oxides", "Peroxides", "polarizes", "Nitrides" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F1_s-Block_Elements%2FGroup__2_Elements%253A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F1Group_2%253A_Chemical_Reactions_of_Alkali_Earth_Metals%2FReactions_of_Group_2_Elements_with_Oxygen, Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science. There are no simple patterns. In this video I take a look at some of the different ways in which group 2 elements can react. (3 Marks) (c) Draw The Molecular Orbital Diagram For Peroxide Ion. The group 1 elements react with oxygen from the air to make metal oxides. 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